Category Archives: Vet360

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From Cloudy to Clear – Effusions Made Easy

Introduction An effusion is the fluid that can accumulate in a body cavity due to various different pathologies. Mechanistically, effusions are caused by transudation, exudation, rupture of a blood/lymph vessel/ hollow organ, or neoplasia. Types of effusions include transudates and exudates, but also haemorrhagic effusions, chyle and uroperitoneum.  The composition of the fluid gives clues… Continue Reading

1. Cognitive Dysfunction of Ageing Dogs and 2. Nutrition and Anti-Oxidants

By Dr Liesel van der Merwe This short article attempts to summarise the most salient and practical aspects of the oxidative stress in the body and what mechanisms the body employs to minimise manage it. Oxidative stress is a by-product of daily metabolic functions which enable living. The majority of complex life on earth requires oxygen for its existence… Continue Reading

Compulsive Disorders in Dogs

Stereotypical behaviour describes repetitive, ritualised, out-of-context locomotor behaviour, such as pacing, circling, or shuffling. Compulsive behaviour was introduced to capture behaviours related to stereotype behaviour, but that are non-locomotor (vocalisation, licking, self-mutilation, staring, holding an object or part of body, staring into space). Today the term compulsive disorder is used as a general term for… Continue Reading

FELINE NEONATAL ISOERYTHROLYSIS

Van der Merwe L.L. BVSc Hons MMed(Vet) Small Animal Medicine Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies (Outpatients), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110. Lieselvdmvet@gmail.com   Feline Blood Groups Feline blood groups have been characterized as Type A, Type B and Type AB, with Type A being most prevalent. The frequency of the… Continue Reading

Medetomidine Premedication for Caesarean Section in the Bitch

By K G M De Cramer, BVSc, MMedVet(Gyn), PhD & K E. Joubert  B.V.Sc M.Med Vet (Anaes) The ideal anaesthetic protocol for caesarean section (CS) should provide adequate muscle relaxation, analgesia and narcosis for optimal operating conditions, be safe for the bitch 2 and should not affect the viability and survival of the puppies 3,4. Additional recommendations… Continue Reading

Reproductive Hormone Assays In Dogs and Cats

By Dr Kate May,BVSc (Pret), MMedVet(Gyn)(Pret), DipACT In order to fully understand the application of certain hormone assays currently available in small animals, we need to briefly recap the physiology behind it all. The overall controlling structure in all reproductive pathways is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a specialized ventral portion of the brain made… Continue Reading

Understanding PCR

Remo Lobetti BVSc MMedVet (Med) PhD Dipl ECVIM INTRODUCTION The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique in molecular biology that analyses short sequences of DNA or RNA and is used in the diagnosis of a variety of infectious and genetic diseases. PCR is used to amplify a piece of DNA resulting a chain reaction… Continue Reading

Are all Generics Created Equal?

By Dr Vinny Naidoo   Bioequivalence is the comparison of the plasma profile between the test and reference product. A generic product is bioequivalent to the innovator product and it thus essentially identical – in a species group. There is no pharmacokinetic evidence to support human medicines being generics for veterinary species.    Introduction A… Continue Reading

CPD: Medial Patella Luxation

By Dr Ross Elliot   INTRODUCTION Medial patella luxation (MPL) is a common developmental orthopaedic condition of the canine patient. Small breed dogs are more commonly affected by the condition than large breed dogs. Patella luxation also occurs in large breeds dogs with medial luxation occurring more commonly than lateral luxation. Medial patella luxation can… Continue Reading

The ABCs of veterinary dentistry “F” is for furcation disease By Jan Bellows, DVM, DAVDC, DABVP, FAVD

  The furcation is a normal anatomical region where the roots begin to diverge in a multirooted tooth. Normally, this area is sealed from the oral environment by the periodontium (gingiva, periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, cementum). Accumulation of plaque and calculus buccally often results in periodontal inflammation and infection. Extension of periodontal disease between the… Continue Reading

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