Index of All Vet360 Magazine Articles

Edition Date Topics Local Author Sections CPD
501 Mar-18 Real Veterinary Hiring Problems (and Solutions) Nicol, D Business
501 Mar-18 Journal Scan: Radiation for Sialocoeles van der Merwe, LL Journal Scan
501 Mar-18 Enrichment for Small Mammals Pritt, S Exotics
501 Mar-18 Differentiating a Heart or Lung Cough Wooten, S Respiratory
501 Mar-18 Arthritis, Obesity and Chronic Pain Gaumnitz, J Surgery
501 Mar-18 The ABC’s of Veterinary Dentistry: Advanced Disease: L Bellows, J Dentistry
501 Mar-18 Sample Collection for Cytological Evaluation Hooijberg, E CPD Accredited Article CPD
501 Mar-18 Placing Esophagostomy Tubes in Cats Hirshenson, M Nutrition
501 Mar-18 From Cloudy to Clear: Effusions made Easy Hooijberg, E Clinical CPD
301 Feb-16 Anaesthesia in Patients Suffering with a Heart Murmur Zeiler, G, Buck, R Anaesthesiology
401 Feb-17 Epidural Anaesthesia and Analgesia Anaesthesiology
404 Aug-17 Medetomidine Premedication for Caesarean Section in the Bitch de Cramer, K Anaesthesiology CPD
201 Feb-17 Sterilisation – Behaviour Effects Hurley, F Behaviour
301 Feb-16 Separation Anxiety in Dogs Behaviour
405 Oct-17 Compulsive Disorders in Dogs Hurley, F Behaviour CPD
406 Dec-17 Cogitive Dysfunction in Cats and Dogs van der Merwe, LL Behaviour CPD
101 Sep-17 Market Dynamic Business
101 Sep-17 Sell Your Service Business
101 Sep-17 What Makes a Difference in Veterinary Practice Business
202 Mar-15 The 10 most Common Pricing Errors made by Vets: Part 1 Business
203 May-15 The 10 most Common Pricing Errors made by Vets: Part 2 Business
204 Jul-15 Valuation of your Practice for Selling Business
303 Jun-16 Management of Working Capital Business
405 Oct-17 The Tyranny of Choice in the Exam Room Nicol, D Business
204 Jul-15 Coughing in Small Breed Dogs Leadsom, R Cardiology
301 Feb-16 Cardiac Murmurs in Dogs and Cats Leadsom, R Cardiology
301 Feb-16 Canine Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy Carter, A Cardiology CPD
306 Dec-16 Pimobendan – Treatment for Pre-clinical Heart Failure Joubert, K Cardiology
305 Oct-16 Pulmonary Hyperytension Leadsom, R Cardiology / Respiratory
201 Feb-17 Get the most out of your Laboratory Work Clinical Pathology
302 Apr-16 New Test for the Early Diagnosis of Kidney Disease Clinical Pathology
402 Apr-17 Understanding PCR Lobetti, R Clinical Pathology
403 Jun-17 Serum Electrophoresis (SEP) Hooijberg, E Clinical Pathology
305 Oct-16 Potassium: Friend and Foe vd Merwe, LL Critical care
304 Aug-16 The ABC of Veterinary Dentistry: A-C Dentistry
305 Oct-16 Dentistry: D – Dentistry Dentistry
306 Dec-16 Dentistry: E – Enamel Dentistry
401 Feb-17 Dentistry: F – Furcation (root) Disease Dentistry
402 Apr-17 Dentistry: G – Gingiva Dentistry
403 Jun-17 Dentistry: H – Hair Dentistry
404 Aug-17 Dentistry: I – Informed Consent Dentistry
405 Oct-17 Dentistry: J – Jaw Fractures Dentistry
406 Dec-17 Dentistry: K – Kick Starting Dentistry
101 Sep-17 Pemphigus Foliaceus in Cats Last, R Dermatology
201 Feb-17 Managing MRSA and MRSS Skin Infections Dermatology
202 Mar-15 Diagnosis and Treatment of Demodicosis in Dogs and Cats Dermatology CPD
203 May-15 Pseudomonas Otitis Infection Dermatology
204 Jul-15 Canine Peri-Oral Dermatitis Dermatology
205 Sep-15 Canine Atopic Dermatitis Schroeder, H Dermatology CPD
205 Sep-15 Cyclopsporine in Canine Atopy de Scally, M Dermatology
206 Dec-17 Cutaneous Adverse Food Reactions Schroeder, H Dermatology
301 Feb-16 Shampoo Therapy Schroeder, H Dermatology
302 Apr-16 Managing Chronic Otitis Externa Briggs, M Dermatology CPD
303 Jun-16 Nail Diseases Dermatology
304 Aug-16 Conditions of the Canine Foot Pad Schroeder, H Dermatology
305 Oct-16 Interdigital Cyst Syndrome in Dogs Schroeder, H Dermatology
306 Dec-16 The Idiosyncrasies of Itchy Cats Dermatology
401 Feb-17 Squamous Cell Carcinoma in Dogs an Cats Zambelli, A Dermatology
403 Jun-17 Skin Diseases – Which Respond to Nutritional Changes Dermatology
206 Dec-17 Ultrasonographic Assessment of the Adrenal Glands in Dogs and Cats Cassel, N Diagnostic Imaging CPD
404 Aug-17 5 Imaging Gems for Veterinarians Diagnostic Imaging
204 Jul-15 Managing Feline Diabetics: Important of High Protein Diet Endocrinology
204 Jul-15 Management of Diabetic Patients Bohm, M Endocrinology CPD
206 Dec-17 Dealing with Incidental Adrenal Tumours Kettner, F Endocrinology CPD
206 Dec-17 The Diagnosis of Hyperaddrenocorticism May, S Endocrinology CPD
206 Dec-17 Treatment Options for Pituitary Dependent Hyperadrenocorticism Bohm, M Endocrinology CPD
206 Dec-17 Hypertension and Proteinuria in Canine Cushings Zambelli, A Endocrinology CPD
304 Aug-16 Feline Hyperthyroidism McLean, J Endocrinology CPD
101 Sep-17 Cyathostomin Alsop, E Equines
203 May-15 Equine Blue Light Therapy Equines
402 Apr-17 Urinary Incontinence in the Horse Hewetson,M Equines
101 Sep-17 Pinioning and Wing Clipping Elliot, D Exotics
205 Sep-15 Approach to Anorexic Rabbits Elliot, D Exotics
206 Dec-17 Fipronil Toxicosis in Rabbits Exotics
306 Dec-16 The Reptile Integument Elliot, D Exotics
202 Mar-15 Feline Constipation Gastroenterology
203 May-15 Vomiting in Cats Gastroenterology
204 Jul-15 Fibre Responsive Diarrhoea Gastroenterology
205 Sep-15 Cobalamin Deficiency in Longstanding GI Disease Miller, D Gastroenterology
304 Aug-16 Diagnosing Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Dog and Cat de Scally, M Gastroenterology
306 Dec-16 Practical GIT Function Testing Gastroenterology
301 Feb-16 Top 5 Liver Conditions in Cats Hepatic
302 Apr-16 Top 5 Liver Disease in Dogs Hepatic
302 Apr-16 Appropriate Protein Restriction in Dogs with Liver Disease vd Merwe, LL Hepatic
303 Jun-16 Vacuolar Hepatopathy in the Scottish Terrier Lobetti, R Hepatic
303 Jun-16 An Update on Gall Bladder Mucocoeles Hepatic
405 Oct-17 An Emerging Disease: Gall Bladder Mucocoeles in Dogs van der Merwe, LL Internal Medicine
405 Oct-17 Is There a Role for Melatonin in Dogs and Cats with IMHA Internal Medicine
406 Dec-17 Minimizing the Risk of NSAIDs Dent, T Internal Medicine
303 Jun-16 THE FIP Jigsaw Puzzle Hooijberg, E Infectious Diseases CPD
403 Jun-17 African Horse Sickness in Dogs o’Dell, N Infectious Diseases
101 Sep-17 Assessing the Risk of Parvovirus Infection in Puppies Attending Puppy Class Journal Scan
101 Sep-17 Urinary Incontinence in Female Dogs – Prevalence Journal Scan
101 Sep-17 Which Gives Better Long Term Survival – Surgical or Medical Management of Portosystemic Shunts Journal Scan
201 Feb-17 Butorphanol vs Buprenorphine for Post Op Pain Control in Cats Journal Scan
201 Feb-17 Upper thoracic disease (T1-T9) in Large Breed Dogs Journal Scan
201 Feb-17 Case Control Study of the Effects of Pimobendan on Survival Time in Cats with HCM and CHF Journal Scan
201 Feb-17 Characterisation and Outcome Following Excision of Masses in the Nictitating Membranes of Horses Journal Scan
202 Mar-15 Current Understanding of Feline Epilepsy, Diagnostic Testing and Treatment Journal Scan
202 Mar-15 Using Laboratory Analyses for Diagnosing Inflammation in Horses Journal Scan
202 Mar-15 Using VHS to Categorise Dyspnoea in Cats Journal Scan
203 May-15 Alternative Surgical Option for Correcting Incontinence in Bitches Journal Scan
203 May-15 Basal Serum Cortisol as a Screening Test for Addison’s Disease in Dogs Journal Scan
204 Jul-15 Influence of Disease Process on APP in Serum and Peritoneal Fluid in Horses with Colic Journal Scan
205 Sep-15 PLE in Yorkshire Terriers Journal Scan
206 Dec-17 Current Concepts in the Management and Diagnosis of Pyothorax Journal Scan
301 Feb-16 Can Milk Thistle be Used to Treat Liver Disease Journal Scan
301 Feb-16 Physiological Heart Murmurs – More Common in our Veterinary Patients Journal Scan
301 Feb-16 SDMA Pinpointed as a Biomarker for Feline Renal Disease Journal Scan
302 Apr-16 Oral Cobalamin Supplementation in Dogs with Chronic Enteropathies and Hypocobalaminaemia Journal Scan
303 Jun-16 Imepitoin, a new Drug to Manage Canine Idiopathic Epilepsy Journal Scan
303 Jun-16 Maropitant as a Novel Treatment for Chronic Bronchitis in Dogs Journal Scan
303 Jun-16 The use of Basal Cortisol to Assess Efficacy of BID Trilostane administration Journal Scan
304 Aug-16 Omeprazole is a Superior Gastric Acid Suppressant in Cats Journal Scan
304 Aug-16 The Efficacy of Ranitidine and OID or BID Administered Omeprazole in Cats Journal Scan
305 Oct-16 Shampoo as Good as Drugs in Treating Superficial Pyoderma Journal Scan
306 Dec-16 Do Heavier Cats need Higher Doses of Amlodipine to Control, Systemic Hypertension? Journal Scan
306 Dec-16 The Effects of Cyclosporin on the Antiplatelet Effect of Aspirin in Normal Dogs Journal Scan
401 Feb-17 Trazadone may Lessen Patient Stress While in the Veterinary Hospital Journal Scan
402 Apr-17 The use of DDVAP to Reduce Surgical Metastases in Mammary Neoplasia of Dogs Journal Scan
402 Apr-17 A Safety Trial of DDAVP in Human Patients with Breast Cancer Journal Scan
402 Apr-17 Sterile Cystitis is Reduced in Dogs Treated with Cyclophosphamide Metronomic, by the Addition of Furosemide Journal Scan
403 Jun-17 Efficacy of Oral Afoxolaner for Treatment of Canine Demodex Journal Scan
403 Jun-17 Efficacy of Afoxolaner in Dogs with Sarcops Journal Scan
302 Apr-16 Nerves Affected in Otitis Media van der Merwe, LL Neurology
305 Oct-16 Neck Pain in Small and Medium Breed Dogs Carter, A Neurology CPD
401 Feb-17 Optimal Management of Canine Seizures van der Merwe, LL Neurology CPD
202 Mar-15 Skinny Old Cats: Why Some Senior Cats Lose Weight Nutrition
206 Dec-17 Nutritional Support for Critically Ill Patients van schoor, M Nutrition
305 Oct-16 Deciphering Pet Food Labels de Scally, M Nutrition
401 Feb-17 Nutritional Assessment in Small Animals de Scally, M Nutrition
402 Apr-17 Omega 3 and Omega 6 Fatty Acids in Canine Diets van der Merwe, LL Nutrition
404 Aug-17 The Carnivore Connection to Nutrition in Cats van der Merwe, LL Nutrition
405 Oct-17 Elevated Liver Enzyme Activity in a Dog Nutrition
406 Dec-17 Antioxidant Function and Nutrition van der Merwe, LL Nutrition CPD
303 Jun-16 Cancer and Nutrition Zambelli, A Oncology
202 Mar-15 Replacement of the Prolapsed Gland of the Third Eyelid Venter, I Ophthalmology
304 Aug-16 Exophthalmos: Common Causes and Treatment Venter, I Ophthalmology
403 Jun-17 Eye Disease – When can the Eye be Saved Allen, R Ophthalmology
405 Oct-17 Do’s and Don’ts of Common Ophthalmic Medications Allen, R Ophthalmology
406 Dec-17 The Eyes Have it: Conjunctivitis as a Window to the Body Ophthalmology
101 Sep-17 Canine Pancreatitis Pancreas
203 May-15 Hyperlipidaemia, Schnauzers, Diabetes Mellitus and Pancreatitis vd Merwe, LL Pancreas
302 Apr-16 The Clinical Utility of Spec cPL Lobetti, R Pancreas
101 Sep-17 Emergence of MRSA and MRSS in People and Pets Pharmacology
201 Feb-17 Doxycycline – Part 1 Botha, OJ Pharmacology
202 Mar-15 Doxycycline – Part 2 Botha, OJ Pharmacology
203 May-15 Doxycycline – Part 3 Botha, OJ Pharmacology
206 Dec-17 Corticosteroid and Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Reactions Pharmacology
403 Jun-17 Are all Generics Created Equal? Naidoo, V Pharmacology CPD
404 Aug-17 Go Inward: How Locus of Control can Save you Practice Management
201 Feb-15 Client Care During the Consultation Practice Management
203 May-15 Bacterial Contamination of Multi-use Fluid Bags Practice management
205 Sep-15 5 Ways to Establish a Fear Free Practice Practice Management
206 Dec-15 Employee Relations Within a Vet Practice – Part 1 practice Management
301 Feb-16 Employee Relations Within a Vet Practice – Part 2 Practice Management
302 Apr-16 Employee Relations Within a Vet Practice – Part 3 Practice Management
302 Apr-16 Before the End – Preparation of Clients for Pet Death Practice Management
305 Oct-16 Engaged Employees Add value Practice management
305 Oct-16 Invasion of the Millennial Pet Owners Practice management
306 Dec-16 5 Ways to Ruin a new Puppy or Kitten Visit Practice management
401 Feb-17 Client Communicator Co-Ordinator Practice management
402 Apr-17 Build a Better Client Survey Practice Management
402 Apr-17 Debt Control in Private Practice Practice Management
403 Jun-17 The Skeptics Guide to Veterinary Wellness Plans Practice management
403 Jun-17 Finance Options for Veterinary Clients Practice management
406 Dec-17 Aim for the Moon with your Behaviour Treatment Plan Practice Management
406 Dec-17 Why “Use it or Lose it” Works in Veterinary Wellness Plans Practice Management
101 Sep-17 Rehabilitation of Neurological Patients Kelly, Megan Rehabilitation CPD
404 Aug-17 Feline Neonatal Isoerythrolysis van der Merwe, LL Reproduction CPD
404 Aug-17 Reproductive Hormone Assays in Dogs and Cats May, K Reproduction
205 Sep-15 Thoracostomy Tube Placement Repiratory
203 May-15 Bone Fracture repair Technique Surgery Orthopaedics
301 Feb-16 Hips Dysplasia vs Cruciate Disease Surgery Orthopaedics
403 Jun-17 Medial Patella Luxation – Future Management Elliot, R Surgery Orthopaedics
404 Aug-17 Conservative Management of Intervertebral Disc Disease Surgery Orthopaedics
405 Oct-17 The Wonders of External Skeletal Fixation in Small Animals Elliot, R Surgery Orthopaedics
406 Dec-17 Advances in Antelope Fracture Repair: Where are we Now? Poore, L, Koepel, K Surgery Orthopaedics
406 Dec-17 Prevention of Implant Failure After Osteosynthesis Procedures for Appendicular Fractures Kitshoff, A Surgery Orthopaedics
201 Feb-17 Wound Repair Techniques: Single Pedicle Advancement Flaps Surgery Soft Tissue
204 Jul-15 How to Perform a Scrotal Urethrostomy Surgery Soft Tissue
302 Apr-16 Total Ear Canal Ablation and Lateral Bulla Osteotomy Elliot, R Surgery Soft Tissue
303 Jun-16 New Strategies in Wound Healing Surgery Soft Tissue
303 Jun-16 Surgical Management of Biliary Tract Disease Elliot, R Surgery Soft Tissue
304 Aug-16 Principles of gastric Surgery in the Dog Elliot, R Surgery Soft Tissue
305 Oct-16 Idiopathic Megacolon and Colectomy in Cats Surgery Soft Tissue
306 Dec-16 GDV – Controlling the Crisis Surgery Soft Tissue CPD
402 Apr-17 Feline Perineal Urethrostomy Surgery Soft Tissue
201 Feb-17 Sterilisation Practices in the Dog and Cat de Cramer, K Theriogenology CPD
202 Mar-15 Human Medication Intoxications Toxicology
205 Sep-15 Decontaminating the Poisoned Patient vd Merwe, LL Toxicology
205 Sep-15 Emesis and Activated Charcoal Toxicology
306 Dec-16 Lipid Rescue – a Novel Antidote Botha, W Toxicology
203 May-15 Transfusion Medicine in Small Animal Practice vd Merwe, LL Transfusion CPD
204 Jul-15 Canine Urinary Tract Infections Urinary Tract
204 Jul-15 Biofilms and UT Infections Henton, M Urinary Tract
301 Feb-16 Effects of Dietary Protein on the Kidneys of Normal Cats and Those with CKD Urinary Tract

Vet360 Articles

Living with FelV-infected Cats

Living with FelV-infected Cats

By Glenn Olah, DVM, PhD, DABVP (feline) With proper management by the owner and healthcare from the veterinary team, cats with this retrovirus can live longer, more comfortable lives. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is an RNA gamma-retrovirus of cats found worldwide, infecting anywhere from 3% to 14% of domestic cats depending on geographic location, sex,… Continue Reading

From Cloudy to Clear – Effusions Made Easy

Introduction An effusion is the fluid that can accumulate in a body cavity due to various different pathologies. Mechanistically, effusions are caused by transudation, exudation, rupture of a blood/lymph vessel/ hollow organ, or neoplasia. Types of effusions include transudates and exudates, but also haemorrhagic effusions, chyle and uroperitoneum.  The composition of the fluid gives clues… Continue Reading

1. Cognitive Dysfunction of Ageing Dogs and 2. Nutrition and Anti-Oxidants

By Dr Liesel van der Merwe This short article attempts to summarise the most salient and practical aspects of the oxidative stress in the body and what mechanisms the body employs to minimise manage it. Oxidative stress is a by-product of daily metabolic functions which enable living. The majority of complex life on earth requires oxygen for its existence… Continue Reading

Compulsive Disorders in Dogs

Stereotypical behaviour describes repetitive, ritualised, out-of-context locomotor behaviour, such as pacing, circling, or shuffling. Compulsive behaviour was introduced to capture behaviours related to stereotype behaviour, but that are non-locomotor (vocalisation, licking, self-mutilation, staring, holding an object or part of body, staring into space). Today the term compulsive disorder is used as a general term for… Continue Reading


Van der Merwe L.L. BVSc Hons MMed(Vet) Small Animal Medicine Department of Companion Animal Clinical Studies (Outpatients), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Private Bag X04, Onderstepoort 0110.   Feline Blood Groups Feline blood groups have been characterized as Type A, Type B and Type AB, with Type A being most prevalent. The frequency of the… Continue Reading

Medetomidine Premedication for Caesarean Section in the Bitch

By K G M De Cramer, BVSc, MMedVet(Gyn), PhD & K E. Joubert  B.V.Sc M.Med Vet (Anaes) The ideal anaesthetic protocol for caesarean section (CS) should provide adequate muscle relaxation, analgesia and narcosis for optimal operating conditions, be safe for the bitch 2 and should not affect the viability and survival of the puppies 3,4. Additional recommendations… Continue Reading

Reproductive Hormone Assays In Dogs and Cats

By Dr Kate May,BVSc (Pret), MMedVet(Gyn)(Pret), DipACT In order to fully understand the application of certain hormone assays currently available in small animals, we need to briefly recap the physiology behind it all. The overall controlling structure in all reproductive pathways is the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a specialized ventral portion of the brain made… Continue Reading

Understanding PCR

Remo Lobetti BVSc MMedVet (Med) PhD Dipl ECVIM INTRODUCTION The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a technique in molecular biology that analyses short sequences of DNA or RNA and is used in the diagnosis of a variety of infectious and genetic diseases. PCR is used to amplify a piece of DNA resulting a chain reaction… Continue Reading

Are all Generics Created Equal?

By Dr Vinny Naidoo   Bioequivalence is the comparison of the plasma profile between the test and reference product. A generic product is bioequivalent to the innovator product and it thus essentially identical – in a species group. There is no pharmacokinetic evidence to support human medicines being generics for veterinary species.    Introduction A… Continue Reading

CPD: Medial Patella Luxation

By Dr Ross Elliot   INTRODUCTION Medial patella luxation (MPL) is a common developmental orthopaedic condition of the canine patient. Small breed dogs are more commonly affected by the condition than large breed dogs. Patella luxation also occurs in large breeds dogs with medial luxation occurring more commonly than lateral luxation. Medial patella luxation can… Continue Reading

LHPG Articles

Heartwater in Cattle and Small Ruminants

By Dr. P.H. Mapham, BVSc (Hon) and Dr. J.H. Vorster, BVSc, MMedVet(Path) Introduction According to Dr PG Marais heartwater was first diagnosed in the North-eastern Transvaal in 1838 (now Mpumalanga) and he makes the interesting comment that the actual origin of the disease is unknown and that it is doubtful whether the disease is indigenous to South… Continue Reading

Antibiotic Stewardship II

Introduction A series of articles has been planned in order to give veterinarians some insight into certain aspects of the responsible and prudent use of antibiotics and other veterinary medicinal products (VMP). The OIE – Terrestrial Animal Health Code – 30/07/2015 publication was quoted in the previous article regarding the various responsibilities of veterinarians and… Continue Reading

Vaccinations and all its Intricacies

By: Dr Grant van Lelyveld (BVSc.) Technical and Marketing Manager for Ruminants HIPRA Southern Africa (Pty) Ltd.   Why do we vaccinate our herds against diseases like Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD), Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Quarter evil (Clostridial spp.) and other such things, but more importantly how can we ensure that we get the best… Continue Reading

Common Foal Emergencies and Diseases

Dr Karin Kruger, BVSc, MSc, DACVIM Equine Specialist Physician 7 Nov 2015 Timing is Everything Neonatal medicine can be extremely rewarding (although incredibly time consuming) if a diagnosis is made and appropriate treatments given timeously. In order to identify abnormalities as soon as possible, all valuable equine births should be observed by a competent person.… Continue Reading

The Effect of Digital Dermatitis on Hoof Conformation

A. Gomez ,*1 N. B. Cook ,* J. Rieman ,* K. A. Dunbar ,* K. E. Cooley ,* M. T. Socha ,† and D. Döpfer * J. Dairy Sci. 98 : 927–936 10.3168/jds.2014-8483 © American Dairy Science Association®, 2015 . Why they did it Digital dermatitis is reported by the authors to be the… Continue Reading

Update on Chlamydia Abortion of Ruminants

Dr Rick Last – Specialist Veterinary Pathologist Vetdiagnostix – Veterinary Pathology Services Introduction The previously revised classification system of the Family Chlamydiaceae (1990) separated the Genus into Chlamydia and Chlamydophila. In 2010 the taxonomists proposed that only a single Genus (Chlamydia) should be considered in the Family and so the Genus Chlamydophila has now fallen… Continue Reading

Endometritis in Cattle

Endometritis in cattle is defined as inflammation of the uterine endometrium more than 21 days post-partum and not associated with systemic signs of illness. It can be divided into clinical endometritis or cytological endometritis based on certain diagnostic criteria. Clinical endometritis is characterised by the presence of a mucopurulent discharge from the vagina. Cytological endometritis… Continue Reading

The effect of cobalt dietary restriction on goats immune responses

Eugene H. Johnson*, Khalid Al-Habsi, Rashid Al-Busaidi, Mohammed Al-Abri. Impaired antibody response and phagocytosis in goats fed a diet low in cobalt. Small Ruminant Research 140 (2016) 27–31. Why they did it Small ruminants, such as sheep develop serious clinical signs of vitamin B12 deficiency when they are fed diets containing low levels of cobalt.… Continue Reading

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